Table of Offices and Conditions of Men

Many of the Bibles of the 19th century contained the following “A Table of the Offices and Conditions of Men.”  Even Bibles which contained no other supplementary materials would sometimes have this table at the end.  Perhaps it is because of one such table that Charles Spurgeon’s wife Susannah was familiar with the title “Tirshatha,” which was a Persian title for governor.  “Tirshatha” was the special name of endearment she gave her famous preacher-husband.

Patriarchs, or Fathers of Families, such as Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and his Sons.

Judges, Temporary, Supreme Governors, immediately appointed by God, over the Children of Israel.

Kings.  And they either of the whole Nation, or, after the falling off of the ten Tribes, of Judah, or Israel.

Elders, Senators, the LXX, or Sanhedrin.

Officers, Provosts, Sheriffs, or Executioners.

Judges, Inferior Rulers, such as determined Controversies in particular Cities.

Israelites, Hebrews, Descendants from Jacob.

An Hebrew of the Hebrews, An Israelite by original Extraction.

A Proselyte of the Covenant, who was circumcised and submitted to the whole Law.

A Proselyte of the Gate, or Stranger, who worshipped one God, but remained uncircumcised.

Offices under the Assyrian or Persian Monarchs.

Tirshatha, or Governor, appointed by the Kings of Assyria or Persia.

Heads of the Captivity, The chief of each Tribe or Family, who exercised a precarious Government during the Captivity.


Superior Officers.

Maccabees, The Successors of Judas Maccabeus, High Priests, who presided with kingly Power.


Presidents, or Governors, sent from Rome with Imperial Power.

Tetrarchs, who had kingly Power in four Provinces.

Proconsuls, or Deputies of Provinces.


Publicans, or Tax-gatherers.

Centurions, Captains of an hundred Men.


High Priests, who only might enter the Holy of Holies.

Second Priests, or Sagan, who supplied the High Priests’s office in case he were disabled.

High Priests for the War, set apart for the occasion of an Expedition.

Priests, Levites of the Sons of Aaron, divided into Twenty-four ranks, each rank serving weekly in the Temple.

Levites, of the Tribe of Levi, but not of Aaron’s Family; of these were three Orders, Gershonites, Kohathites, Merarites: several Sons of Levi.

Nethinims, Inferior servants to the priests and Levites (not of their Tribe) to draw Water, and Cleave Wood, &c.

Prophets, anciently called Seers, who foretold future Events, and denounced God’s Judgments.

Children of the Prophets, their Disciples, or Scholars.

Wise Men, called so in Imitation of the Eastern magi, or gentile philosophers.

Scribes, Writers and Expounders of the law.

Disputers, that raised and determined Questions out of the Law.

Rabbies or Doctors, Teachers of Israel.

Libertines, Freed Men of Rome, who being Jews or Proselytes, had a Synagogue or Oratory for themselves.

Gaulonites or Galileans, who pretended it unlawful to obey an Heathen Magistrate.

Herodians, who shaped their religion to the Times, and particularly flattered Herod.

Epicureans, who placed all happiness in Pleasure.

Stoics, who denied the Liberty of the Will, and pretended all Events were determined by Fatal Necessity.

Simon Magus, Author of the heresy of the Gnosticks, who taught that men, however vicious their Practice was, should be saved by their Knowledge.

Nicolaitanes, Hereticks, the Disciples of one Nicolas of Antioch, who taught the Community of Wives.

Nazirites, who, under a Vow, abstained from Wine, &c.

Nazarenes, Jews professing Christianity.

Zelots, Sicarii, or Murderers, who, under Pretence of the Law, thought themselves authorized to commit any outrage.

Pharisees, Separatists, who, upon the opinion of their own Godliness, despised all others.

Saducees, who denied the resurrection of the Dead, Angels, and Spirits.

Samaritans, Mongrel professors, partly Heathen, and partly Jews, the Offspring of the Assyrians, sent to Samaria.

Apostles, Missionaries, or persons sent; they who were sent by our Saviour, from their number, were called, The Twelve.

Bishops, Successors of the Apostles in the Government of the Church.

Deacons, Officers chosen by the Apostles to take Care of the Poor.